Testicular cancer starts in the male gland known as a testicle or testis (two are called testicles, or testes). Though it can affect a man or boy at any age, the prevalent ages range from 15 to 44 years. This cancer is rare, very treatable, and with early diagnosis can be cured.

To encourage early detection, men should learn to perform testicular self-exams regularly and contact a doctor if any of the symptoms below are present.


  • A painless lump in the testicle.
  • Swelling of the testicle (with or without pain) or a feeling of weight in the scrotum.
  • Pain or a dull ache in the testicle, scrotum or groin.
  • Tenderness or changes in the male breast tissue.

Risk Factors

Those with the highest risk are:

  • Men with a father or brother who had testicular cancer
  • Men with a history of testes that don’t drop before birth
  • Abnormal cells in the testicle called germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS), most often found during an infertility test